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Profile gauge

Profile gauge also known as contour gauge. It is the gauge used to copy any shape or surface. Profile gauge consists of stable stainless steel needles or plastic pins as shown in following figure.

profile or contour gauge
By User:Tenbergen, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=52518783

The needles keep their position well after have taken the required shape.

When we pressed profile gauge against any shape like a flowerpot in above picture. On this time the needles conforms the flowerpot shape.

general profile gauge

Use of profile gauge

Profile gauge is simple tool. Not so precise instrument like we have in our GaugeHow(Gauge-list) site. But still some applications of contour gauge are

  • Designing in metal or wood working
  • For easily decoration.
  • Used to record the profile of pots (also known as pottery gauge)

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Top-10 Mechanical Measuring Instruments

Here is some most commonly used mechanical instruments for measurement in industries. Without these instruments I don’t think any quality process possible.

Learn all top-10 instruments in our Online Course

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01. Vernier Caliper

Vernier Caliper is a widely used linear measurement instrument with a least count of 0.02 mm. It is used to measure linear dimensions like length, diameter, depth.

It is Basic Instrument of measurement, consist of two types of scale

vernier  caliper mitutoyo

The main scale and the Vernier scale that can slide along the main scale. Two types of measurement we can do, the first one is through external jaw (measure external dimensions) and another one is internal jaw (measure internal dimensions).

How to use vernier caliper?
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02. Micrometer

External Micrometer is also known as Outside Micrometer or External Micrometer.

It is used to check outside diameter of circle by the means of accuracy of 0.01 mm or up to 0.001 mm.

baker micrometer specification

Vernier type Micrometer gives highest acceptable accuracy of 1 micron such gauge is vernier type micrometer.

How to use micrometer

Difference between Micrometer and Vernier caliper

1. Usually Micrometer is more accurate and precise than Vernier caliper

2. Measurement range of micrometer is 25 mm while vernier caliper has wide range.

3. You can check depth by vernier caliper but in case of micrometer you have to use Depth Micrometer

4. Inside Micrometer is used for measurement of inner diameter but in case of vernier caliper it is checked by internal jaw.

Basics and difference vernier caliper and micrometer

03. Steel Scale

Steel scale is single piece linear measuring instrument. Steel scale indicates two units that are cm and inches, cm division on one side and inches, on another side.

Watch full video to understand engineering scale

04. Vernier Height Gauge

Vernier height gauge used to measure vertical dimension from reference ground. Vernier Height Gauge consist of a graduated scale or bar is held in a vertical position by a finely ground fixed base.

The graduated scale has least count of 0.02 mm like Vernier Caliper has. And the way of taking a reading of measurement in Vernier Height Gauge is same as in Vernier gauge.

Vernier Height Gauge
How to use vernier height gauge?

05. Vernier Depth Gauge

Vernier Depth Gauge as the name suggests is used to measure the depth from the surface of reference of an object. Vernier caliper also has depth bar but this can not be used as the standard measurement.

See the least count and how to use depth vernier?

06. Bevel Protractor

A simple protractor is a basic device used for measuring angles with a least count of 1° or ½°. Bevel Protractor is an angular measuring instrument capable of measuring angles with a least count of  5’.

bevel scale

The protractor dial is graduated in degrees with every tenth degree numbered. The sliding blade is fitted into this dial I.e. it may be extended to either direction and set at an angle to the base.

07. Dial Gauge (Plunger, Level)

The dial indicator or the Plunger dial gauge is one of the simplest and the most widely used mechanical comparator.

First of all the use of plunger dial gauge used to compare work-pieces against a master

See video for more

Lever Dial Gauge also knew as Test Indicator. It used to measure sensitive contact.

Lever Dial gauge usually measure up to 0.80 mm. But some special type lever dial design for measurement up to 2 mm. 

lever dial gauge
Lever type dial gauge

08. Engineering Square

A ruler can be used to draw straight lines but there is no guaranty that the line is drawn is accurate and exactly straight, this is where the engineering square is brought into use.

engineering square

An engineering square also known as machinist square is similar in size and construction to a try square.

It is a tool used for making straight lines and are used to measure angles.

09. V Block

In Industries where precise marking and firm holding of objects is required, V-Blocks play a major role and are extremely important metalworking jigs.

The construction had two clamps:screw clamp and a U shaped handle like clamp and a V-block .

The materials used are hardened tool steel and cast iron. The V-block is used as a locator and a centralizer.

It is mostly used to fit round or cylindrical objects tight and rigid for easy marking or cutting.

10. Radius Gauge

Gauges are derived from the French word”jauge” which means the result of the measurement. We are all aware that gauges are used to measure the thickness, size or capacity of something.

concave and convex shape

Likewise, radius gauges are instruments that are used to measure the radius of the object.

blades of radius gauge

The radius gauge is combined with another gauge known as fillet gauge which in mechanics means a rounding of the part design

Some thing left please comment your suggestion

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Surface Plate Grades and it’s types

Surface Metrology specify the function of the surface. The important parameter is surface roughness.In manufacturing industries, a surface must be within certain limit of roughness.

Video of Surface Plate

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Therefore, measuring surface roughness is vital to quality control of machining a work-piece.

granite surface plate

By Surface Measurement, we can predict the performance of the component and control the manufacturing process.  

Basic Terminology in Surface Measurement

Flatness

Flatness is define by the distance between peak and depth point of surface plate.

Rigidity

It is the property of a solid body to resist deformation.

Leveling

It is the process of Level the table by it’s support system.

pink granite surface plate
Grade-00 surface plate

Types of Surface Plate

According to Material used, There are three types of Surface Plate

  1. Granite Surface Plate(IS 7327,ISO 8512-2)
  2. Cast Iron Surface Plate(IS 2285,ISO 8512-1 )
  3. Glass Plate(IS 14900)

Granite Surface Plate

Granite surface plate have more rigidity for the same depth with the absence of corrosion. They provide a high modulus of rigidity and are moisture free.

Metallic objects like manufactured components/jobs can easily slide on their surface. The usual range available from 400*250*50 mm to 2000*1000*250 mm.

surface plate grade 0

Grading System

Grade-00 (Prefer for Metrology laboratories )
Grade-0 (Prefer for General work in Quality Control)
Grade-1 (Prefer for tool room)
Grade-2 (Used for Shop Flore)
Grade-3 (Also, used for shop Flore depend upon needs of customer )
grading system of granite surface plate

Cast Iron Surface Plate

Cast-Iron surface plates used after rough machining is done followed by seasoning for suitable period. Then, heat treatment for relive the internal stress.

CI surface table
CI Surface table

The accuracy of this surface plate is +/- 0.002 mm to +/-0.005 mm for the surface plate diagonal of 150 mm.

CI surface plate available in 2 grades,

Grade-1 (Maximum flatness is 5 microns for 300mm*300 mm plate)

Grade-2 (Maximum flatness is 20 microns for 300mm*300 mm plate)

Glass Surface Plate

Glass surface plate commercially available. These are comparatively light in weight and free from burr and corrosion.

Accuracy varies in the range 0.004 to 0.008 mm. They are available in size of 150mmx150mm to 600mm*800mm.

Measurement of Surface roughness

Inspection and assessment of surface roughness of machined work-piece can be done by different measurement techniques.

  1. Pocket Surf
  2. Electronic Level

Read More about this in Next Blog,

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What is CMM? and types of Coordinate Measuring Machine.

What is CMM ?

The full form of  CMM is Coordinate Measuring Machine. It  is an advanced measurement machine works for measure complex and large component. CMM is a device for measuring the physical characteristics of an object. The machine is controlled by a computer or an operator.

CMM consists of 3-axis namely X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis. Measurement is done by the prob attached to a third moving axis. This prob could be mechanical, optical, laser or white light.

So, the machine who takes reading in 6 DOF(Degree of freedom) known as CMM.

Types of CMM

There are four basic types of stationary CMM:

  • Bridge.
  • Cantilever.
  • Horizontal Arm.
  • Gantry.

Bridge type CMM

bridge type cmm

Bridge CMMs are the most common type of coordinate measuring machine.

It is used for High accuracy, moderate flexibility, for medium sized components.  

Cantilever CMM

Mitutoyo cantilever cmm
Mitutoyo shop-Flore CMM

Cantilever CMMs differ from the bridge-style in that the measuring head is only attached on one side of a rigid base.

This type of CMM is used for Highest Accuracy, Lowest Flexibility, for small sized components.

Horizontal arm CMM

horizontal arm cmm
Swan horizontal arm CMM

Horizontal arm CMMs are less accurate than the other type fo CMM.  because of their design.However, it also makes them useful for measuring large workpieces or components.

This is used for Lowest accuracy, Highest flexibility, for very large components.

Gantry CMM

Gantry CMMs are designed similar to bridge type CMMs, but tend to be much larger. 

Gantry CMM is used for High accuracy, Moderate flexibility for large components.

Gantry cmm
Image: Mitutoyo

Probs of CMM

CMM probes are available in three main forms:

  1. Touch-Trigger probes
  2. Displacement Measuring CMM probes
  3. Proximity or Non-contact Probes

Read More about Probs of CMM

Parts and Principle of CMM

Read more about Principle and Parts of CMM

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How to level Surface table by spirit Level?

Spirit Level is a device which is used to check the level of surfaces especially surface tables.

A spirit level is a basic bubble instrument such like It is an angular measuring device in which the bubble always moves to the highest point of a glass vial mounted top surface on Spirit Level.

spirit level

Spirit Level is easy to measuring device, we just have to trace bubble movement. For example in our figure bubble cover two digit of a scale of one side, that means actual inclination is 0.02 per units.

spirit level

The base of Spirit level is called the reference plane, is seated on the machine part for which straightness or flatness is to be determined.

When the base is horizontal, the bubble rests at the center of the graduated scale, which is engraved on the glass.

shape of spirit level

Principle of Spirit Level

The performance of the spirit level is governed by the geometrical relationship between the bubble and the two references. That is –

The first reference is an effect of gravity and the second one is a scale against which the bubble is read.

Please comment below, for any query or suggestion, Happy to have your attention 🙂

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Vernier Caliper vs Micrometer | Basics of Vernier Caliper and Micrometer

Vernier caliper and Micrometer both are widely used in industries for daily quality control. Both are simple to use and easy for measurement.

Vernier Caliper and Micrometer both are available in Digital form. that means more accuracy and precise measurement we can process.

Before we go for differences, Let’s see the basic introduction of Vernier caliper and Micrometer.

Vernier Caliper

Vernier Caliper is a widely used linear measurement instrument. It is used to measure linear dimensions like length, diameter, depth.

There are three types of Vernier Caliper

  1. Analog Vernier Caliper
  2. Dial Vernier Caliper
  3. Digital Vernier Caliper

Analog Vernier Caliper

It is the most common Instrument of measurement, It consist of two types of scale

The main scale and the Vernier scale that can slide along the main scale.

Two types of measurement we can do, the first one is through the external jaw (measure external dimensions) and another one is internal jaw (measure internal dimensions)

analog vernier caliper

The most common Least count of Analog Vernier Caliper is 0.02 mm. You may also find vernier least count of 0.05 mm or 0.1 mm

Read more about Analog Vernier Caliper

Dial Vernier Caliper

Vernier scale is replaced by Dial indicator in dial vernier caliper. Dial indicator helpful for easy measurement understanding.

dial vernier caliper

Least count of Dial Vernier caliper is the same as Analog type.

Digital Vernier Caliper

Digital Vernier Caliper is upgrading version of Analog Vernier Caliper, which is a widely used linear measurement instrument with a least count of 0.01 mm, more accurate than Analog.

digital Vernier caliper

Read More about Digital Vernier Caliper

Micrometer

The micrometer is more precise and accurate than Vernier caliper. Usually, two types of Micrometer are

  1. External Micrometer
  2. Digital Micrometer

External Micrometer

External Micrometer is also known as Outside Micrometer or External Micrometer.

micrometer

It is used to check outside diameter of the shaft by the means of the accuracy of 0.01 mm or up to 0.001 mm.

Read more about External Micrometer

Digital Micrometer

Digital Micrometer is a very popular instrument these days because of its easy of compactness of taking an observation. Digital Micrometer can observe measurement in mm or inch depend upon our need basis.

digital Micrometer

The accuracy of Digital Micrometer 0.001 mm which is highly accurate and precise than External Micrometer. You can choose Digital Micrometer with an accuracy up to 0.001 mm if the cost does not matter

Main Differences between Vernier Caliper and Micrometer

1. Usually Micrometer is more accurate and precise than Vernier caliper

2. Measurement range of micrometer is 25 mm while vernier caliper has wide range.

3. You can check depth by vernier caliper but in case of micrometer you have to use Depth Micrometer

4. Inside Micrometer is used for measurement of inner diameter but in case of vernier caliper it is checked by internal jaw.

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Dial Thickness Gauge

The gauge uses to check the thickness of an object. Dial thickness gauge uses a Dial Indicator for comparison. 

It consists of a sturdy, rigid frame made of hard aluminum with a lifting lever for the movable upper measuring spindle. 

dial thickness gauge

Dial Thickness Gauges are used for measuring the thickness of a very wide range of materials such as leather, paperboard, paper,rubber, glass, sheet, metal, films, plywood and plastics.

Dial Thickness gauge has an accuracy of 0.01 mm. It has a flat measuring faces used for measuring soft material such as plastic films, felt, rubber, paper, etc. 

parts of dial thickness gauge

The gauge graduation is represented in millimeter and micron.

Another type of faces is spherical measuring faces for measurement of a hard material such as sheet metal, hardboard, wooden panels and panes of glass.

Thickness Gages offer a quick and efficient means of inspection with their convenient grip handle, thumb trigger and springloaded spindle

application of dial thickness gauge

Contact points are made of hard metal. Tolerance marks in the dial make for easy reading and accurate measuring results.

They are very handy!

These Dial Caliper Gages are comparison gages, and should be used in conjunction with a Setting Ring or a micrometer. The caliper is spring loaded and makes point contact at constant measuring force

digital thickness gauge

Dial Gage Stands are designed for comparison measurements of size using a dial indicator or Digimatic Indicator.

Indicators may be used to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated

long dial thickness gauge

Dial gauge with well-balanced frames and handgrips coupled with lightweight make these gauges easy to use for measurement.

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dial thickness gauge

This flat anvil thickness gage has a standard dial reading with a ceramic spindle/anvil. Ideally suited for measuring the thickness of paper, film, wire, sheet metal and similar materials.

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CMM |Types of CMM probs

Universal Measuring Machine is easy to use and could be employed for measuring multiple dimensions of objects or instruments.

UMM(Universal Measuring Machine) consists of a rigid bed called Universal Measuring Table which is flow-table or can be fixed according to requirement.

UMM equipped with the extra mechanism used for inspection of thread ring gauge both internal and external, plug gauge, snap gauge, bore ring, taper gauge, etc.

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They are equipped with mechanisms, which enable quick and fine table adjustment. For self-centering of a job, one pair of support block is provided.

For basic introduction of coordinate measuring machine check out Here

CMM probs convert physical measurements into electrical signals. CMM probes have a wide classification for direct and comparative measurements.

mitutoyo probs

CMM probes are available in three main forms:

  1. Touch-Trigger probes
  2. Displacement Measuring CMM probes
  3. Proximity or Non-contact Probes

Or Watch our YouTube Video

Touch-Trigger probes

Renishaw Touch-Trigger probes

Touch-trigger probes are the most common type. They actually touch the surface of the work-piece, and open contact, send a signal with the coordinates of the point to the CMM.

mitutoyo cmm

The probe is than backed off and move to the next location where the process is repeated.

Displacement measuring CMM probes

senser prob

Displacement measuring CMM probes are also known as scanning probes. This method generally involves passing the prob over a target surface at its working range. As the probe scans the surface, it transmits the continuous flow of data to the measurement system.

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Scanning contact probes many use LVDT(Linear variable differential transformer) or optoelectronic position sensing.

senser scanning by mitutoyo

Proximity or non-contact probes

Proximity or non-contact probes function similarly to displacement measuring CMM probes, but they use laser, capacitive or video measurement technology instead of LVDT’s.


Types of CMM

There are four basic types of stationary CMM:

  • Bridge.
  • Cantilever.
  • Horizontal Arm.
  • Gantry.

Read More about Types of CMM

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