What is the difference between moment and torque is the question that pops up in most of our minds?
In physics, they signify the same thing but in mechanics, they hold slightly different meanings. Both have the same unit i.e. N-m but torque is a movement force whereas the moment Is a static force. Torque is used where there is rotation involved whereas moment Is used where there is no rotation.
Application of moment and torque for varied and interesting to observe. I hope everyone has played on a seesaw at least once in their life. What if I tell you that you can keep the saw balanced by having a 120 kg person one side and a 50kg person on the other side?
It seems difficult to accept but if you place them in such a way that the lighter person is at 3m from the center and the healthy person is at 1m. They both will apply the same moment and the seesaw will be balanced.
In rural areas, people still use the concept of the moment to churn milk. By providing a torque to the handle with the help of the rope the wooden stick rotates about its axis and thus, in turn, churns the milk.
A similar concept of torque is used in old dams where the force of the falling water rotated the water wheel. The water wheel was connected to a dynamo thus generating electricity by the principle of conversion of kinetic energy into potential energy.
The International System of Units (SI)has become the fundamental basis of scientific measurement worldwide. This system is an extension and refinement of the metric system, which is more superior and convenient than other systems. It provides one basic unit for each physical quantity. So, the 7 units of measurement are follow
The basic fundamental unit of mass is “Kg”. We also measure mass in Gram, Pound, Metric ton, Stone, Microgram, Carat, etc.
The basic fundamental unit of Time is “Sec(s)”. We also express time in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, years, etc
3. Electric Current –
The basic fundamental unit of Electric Current is “Ampere(A)”.
4. Amount of Substance –
The amount of Substance is a dimensionless expression of the number of particles in a particle or object. The basic fundamental unit of Amount of Substance is “Mole”. The amount of substance all called material quantity.
The SI unit of Illumination is “Candela”. Candela is denoted by symbol ‘cd’. Some other units are lux, lumen, etc.
The SI unit of Distance is “Meter”. Distance also measures in mm, cm, km, yard, inch, foot, feet, etc.
The SI unit of temperature is “kelvin”, expressed as the word “K”.Temperature 0 K is known as “absolute zero.”
We use two types of scale in measuring temperature that is –
1.Relative scales [Fahrenheit (°F) and Celsius (°C)]
This seven basic quality tools, which can assist an organization for problem solving and process improvements. Learn this awesome skill Free Here.
Video of Seven QC tools
The first who introduce the seven basic tools is Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa (1968).
Check sheets are sheets that are designed in advance to collect the necessary data easily and systematically, which allows the efficient checking off all items for inspection and verification.
Check sheets are tools for collecting data. They are designed specifically for the type of data to be collected. Check sheets aid in the systematic collection of data.
Some examples of check sheets are daily maintenance check sheets,
attendance records, production log books, etc
The histogram is a very useful tool to describe a sense of the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable.
Histograms or Frequency Distribution Diagrams are bar charts showing the distribution pattern of observations grouped inconvenient class intervals and arranged in order of magnitude.
It should be designed properly for those working into the operation
the process can easily utilize and understand them.
Pareto Analysis introduced by an Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto,
who worked with income and other unequal distributions in the 19th century,
he noticed that 80% of the wealth was owned by only 20% of the
population. Which means the majority of defects are caused by a few defective items later, the Pareto principle was developed by Juran in 1950.
Kaoru Ishikawa is considered by many researchers to be the founder and the first promoter of the ‘Fishbone’ diagram (or Cause-and-Effect Diagram) for root cause analysis and the concept of Quality Control (QC) circles.
A Cause-and-Effect Diagram is a tool that shows a systematic relationship
between a result or a symptom of an effect and its possible causes.
When solving a problem or analyzing a situation one needs to know the relationship between two variables.
Scatter diagram is a powerful tool to draw the distribution of information
in two dimensions, which helps to detect and analyze a pattern
relationships between two quality and compliance variables (as an
independent variable and a dependent variable), an understanding if there is a relationship between them, so what kind of relationship is (Weak or strong and positive or negative).
A Flowchart visualizes a picture including the inputs, activities, decision points, and outputs for using and understanding easily concerning the overall objective through the process.
Control chart or Shewhart control chart was introduced and developed by Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s at the Bell Telephone Laboratories and is likely the most “technically sophisticated” for quality management (Montgomery, 2009).
Control charts are a special form of “run chart that illustrates the amount and nature of variation in the process over time”.
Also, it can draw and describe what has been happening in the process.
CMM(Coordinate Measuring Machine) is an advanced measurement machine works for measure complex and large component. It is a device for measuring the physical characteristics of an object. The machine is controlled by a computer or an operator.
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As a student, a question popped in my mind as soon as I heard about Numerical Analysis. What is so special about this field of mathematics and how is it different?
In the search for my answer to this question, I explored Numerical Analysis. To put it simply numerical analysis is used to help us find solutions to lengthy problems in general or statistically indeterminant problems (i.e. where the number of variables is more than the number of equations available).
If this is such a powerful tool, then why do we need to remember lengthy equations to find the roots of equations, to begin with?
Numerical analysis even though a powerful tool has its downsides, as you always get an approximation and not the exact answer. The error in results can be reduced to a significant amount depending upon our needs.
Thus, if you’re designing a system for nuclear power plant you need a very high level of accuracy and if you’re designing a system for a college project you may need significantly lesser accuracy.
As for importance take the example of weather predictions.
Have you ever wondered how do they calculate how the weather is going to be like in the future? The advanced numerical analysis provides you the solution with approximate but accurate results.
You know that it takes time to solve an order 3 equation and there are limited ways in which you can solve it. What if I say that you’ve to solve a 100-order equation? Which is not possible to solve using the analytical method?
You’re working in a manufacturing plant and you want to predict the sales based upon the trend that has been followed in the past and if there is a lot of variation then it gets tedious to do it manually.
There is software such as MATLAB or Octave where you can code that calculates the solution to these and many other complicated problems.