This concept is just as it sounds. In short, a work that doesn’t happen. The concept of virtual work becomes convenient when the angle between the tension the direction of virtual displacement is either zero or 180. Thus, in a sense, it can be said that the concept applies to 1 degree of freedom systems.
Inside Micrometer is used to measure the larger internal dimension.
Inside Micrometer can measure internal Diameter of holes and registers.
Types of Micrometer
There are various types of micrometers available in the industry each
used for a specific purpose. One such micrometer is the “Inside
Micrometer”.The inside micrometer is used to measure the inner diameter
of objects that are bonded by walls,cylindrical bore or hollow
pipe.There are two types of Inside Micrometer
Analog type Inside Micrometer
Digital type Inside Micrometer
The least count is 0.01 mm for analog type and 0.001 mm for digital type.
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It can be measured by mm or inches and gives precise readings. The
inside micrometers are also available in different designs and sizes for
The general equipment comprises of a measuring head or a micrometer unit; extension rods; spacer or spacing collar and a handle.
The measuring head consists of a thimble, which has one way marking
and holds readings up to 50 mm which is the thimble division(TD)
The sleeve or barrel have the main or index scale and sub-scales,
they have two waymarking. The main scale can measure up to 25 mm and the
measured value is known as MSD(main scale division).
On the frontier end of the measuring head which is also known as the
anvil is a hole through which the extension rods are inserted to the
inside micrometer. On one side of the anvil is a locking screw that is
used to adjust the extension rods and holds it firm. On the other side,
there is a hole that is used to fit the handle.
The handle is used to insert the inside micrometer through objects
having depth. The posterior end also contains a screw that is used to
adjust the thimble.
Range of inside Micrometer
Good quality steel is used in measuring head and spindle, but for the
faces-high graded tool steel is used. The least count of the inside
micrometer is 0.01 mm. The extension rods can be of different sizes
ranging from 50 mm- 200mm, depending on the requirement.
The extension rods are classified as
.Extension rods are used for extensive objects having large
diameters, it is used along with the spacer. The spacer is used for
smaller diameter in addition to the measuring head. The spacer is of 12
How to measure inner diameter with Inside Micrometer?
The design of inside micrometers can also have jaws where one end is
fixed and the other is movable.The working of inside micrometer is very
simple.It basically consists of three steps
Unlike 2D images or shapes,3D has a different perspective.We tend to see the parameters just as the way they are in the real world.
Technologies are reaching great heights, faster and better innovations are made every day. We can make 3D measurements and solve real-time problems easily.
But why do we need 3D measurements?
To get a different outlook and point of view.
To analyse and interpret the solution to any outcome or project through a digitalized format.
To reduce human efforts and manual work which is tedious and time consuming.
How do you make a 3D measurement?
It can be made by three ways:
Using a Software.
By an instrument known as Coordinate Measuring Machine(CMM) connected to a PC.
Using a Software:
For modeling a prototype without the use of any paperwork or building up a replica, software is used.
The measurements are automatic and simple. The software extracts the parameters required or takes the information given by the designer. It shows a representation of the features on the screen.
Dimensions may be added by a click on the screen. Maya, Cinema4D, Blender, and SketchUp are a few examples of software used in the 3D measurement.
An object or model is taken, it is scanned initially using a 3D scanner converted into the digital scan, later printed using a 3D printer.
It can also scan a human to capture a 3D model of his shape.
It is widely used in photogrammetry, animation, and graphics. It is used for visualizing, simulating and rendering graphic designs.
CMM (Coordinate measuring machine):
Coordinate Measuring Machine uses a probe and measures the geometry of physical objects or entities. It is connected to a PC that has software installed.
The construction consists of a granite or steel table and a rotary table, sleeve, support system, head probe, the position detector, and a scale. These machines are handheld and portable.
The probes used can be mechanical, optical, laser or white light. The PC has software that creates 3D objects, stores the values of the object projected in the probe and gives back information to the CMM.
The Coordinate measuring machine is classified into the following types:
Where do we need 3D measurements?:
Manufacturing Industries to design and develop equipments,machinery and vehicles.
In the construction department.To make smaller 3D models of buildings and landscapes.
Designing and modelling objects.
Medical field to create human organs in digitalized 3D form and to study them in an effective manner for surgeries.
3D animated movies and 3D graphics in games.
Aerospace engineering to design propellers,planes and other representation of tools and alter them to form new ones.
Therefore 3D measurements form an important aspect in the evolving industries and technologies in the world.
The demand for its measurement and applications are increasing day by day. In the global level,3D measurement solves complex problems and paves the way to new ideas and designs.
Sometime while measurement we experience unfavorable situation, that causes a lot of losses. To avoid such situation you should consider some things on your gauges, undesirable situation of gauges may loss your business and object. In this article, we discuss some reason of wrong measurement, due to condition of gauge and instrument.
Here 4 main Thinks needs to be considered before use any gauge
Instrument should be clean and dust free
First think first, when you take your instrument in your hand, first check presence of dust and undesirable particles on all faces and corner of gauge. A small dust could disturb your whole measurement process.
Measuring area of gauge should be shined and wear free
The main part of any instrument is measuring face for example measuring face of vernier caliper is external and internal jaws, measuring faces of plug gauge is outer diameter.
Reference value (zero) should be fixed to avoid repeat-ability
Check reference valve like zero in vernier caliper and scale. The value of zero should be fixed when we change measuring length from minimum and maximum, again and again. Repeat-ability of zero value main occur in digital types of instrument due to their fluctuation sensing problem.
Check Calibration Certificate
Check Certification of calibration, keep in mind due date of calibration report also check calibrated data compare with actual value of gauge to find its actual errors.
Be half of above thinks needs to be considered before use any gauge, many error we can consider like human error,environmental errors, humidity effects etc.
If you like to suggest something please mention!
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