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Virtual Work: A work that doesn’t happen

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This concept is just as it sounds. In short, a work that doesn’t happen.
The concept of virtual work becomes convenient when the angle between the tension the direction of virtual displacement is either zero or 180. Thus, in a sense, it can be said that the concept applies to 1 degree of freedom systems.

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Inside Micrometer & Least count

Inside Micrometer is used to measure the larger internal dimension. Inside Micrometer can measure internal Diameter of holes and registers.

inside micrometer
Mitutoyo’s Inside Micrometer

Types of Micrometer

There are various types of micrometers available in the industry each used for a specific purpose. One such micrometer is the “Inside Micrometer”.The inside micrometer is used to measure the inner diameter of objects that are bonded by walls,cylindrical bore or hollow pipe.There are two types of Inside Micrometer

  1. Analog type Inside Micrometer
  2. Digital type Inside Micrometer

The least count is 0.01 mm for analog type and 0.001 mm for digital type.

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It can be measured by mm or inches and gives precise readings. The inside micrometers are also available in different designs and sizes for various measurements.

digital inside micrometer

The general equipment comprises of a measuring head or a micrometer unit; extension rods; spacer or spacing collar and a handle.

The measuring head consists of a thimble, which has one way marking and holds readings up to 50 mm which is the thimble division(TD) reading.

The sleeve or barrel have the main or index scale and sub-scales, they have two waymarking. The main scale can measure up to 25 mm and the measured value is known as MSD(main scale division).

On the frontier end of the measuring head which is also known as the anvil is a hole through which the extension rods are inserted to the inside micrometer. On one side of the anvil is a locking screw that is used to adjust the extension rods and holds it firm. On the other side, there is a hole that is used to fit the handle.

The handle is used to insert the inside micrometer through objects having depth. The posterior end also contains a screw that is used to adjust the thimble.

Range of inside Micrometer

Good quality steel is used in measuring head and spindle, but for the faces-high graded tool steel is used. The least count of the inside micrometer is 0.01 mm. The extension rods can be of different sizes ranging from 50 mm- 200mm, depending on the requirement.

inside micrometer 50-150
MItutoyo’s Micrometer

The extension rods are classified as

  • 50-75mm;
  • 75-100mm;
  • 100-125mm;
  • 125-150mm;
  • 150-175mm;
  • 175-200mm

.Extension rods are used for extensive objects having large diameters, it is used along with the spacer. The spacer is used for smaller diameter in addition to the measuring head. The spacer is of 12 mm.

How to measure inner diameter with Inside Micrometer?

The design of inside micrometers can also have jaws where one end is fixed and the other is movable.The working of inside micrometer is very simple.It basically consists of three steps

  1. fixing the rod and spacer
  2. adjusting the screw and
  3. measuring.

Its working same as analog type micrometer you can check here: External Micrometer

Precise readings are necessary to prevent faulty readings and leakages that can cause errors.

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3D measurements

Photo by Pixabay on

Unlike 2D images or shapes,3D has a different perspective.We tend to see the parameters just as the way they are in the real world.

Technologies are reaching great heights, faster and better innovations are made every day. We can make 3D measurements and solve real-time problems easily.

But why do we need 3D measurements?

  • To get a different outlook and point of view.
  • To analyse and interpret the solution to any outcome or project through a digitalized format.
  • To reduce human efforts and manual work which is tedious and time consuming.

How do you make a 3D measurement?

It can be made by three ways:

  • Using a Software.
  • 3D scanning.
  • By an instrument known as Coordinate Measuring Machine(CMM) connected to a PC.

Using a Software:

For modeling a prototype without the use of any paperwork or building up a replica, software is used.

The measurements are automatic and simple. The software extracts the parameters required or takes the information given by the designer. It shows a representation of the features on the screen.

Dimensions may be added by a click on the screen. Maya, Cinema4D, Blender, and SketchUp are a few examples of software used in the 3D measurement.

3D scanning:

An object or model is taken, it is scanned initially using a 3D scanner converted into the digital scan, later printed using a 3D printer.

It can also scan a human to capture a 3D model of his shape.

It is widely used in photogrammetry, animation, and graphics. It is used for visualizing, simulating and rendering graphic designs.

CMM (Coordinate measuring machine):

Coordinate Measuring Machine uses a probe and measures the geometry of physical objects or entities. It is connected to a PC that has software installed.

The construction consists of a granite or steel table and a rotary table, sleeve, support system, head probe, the position detector, and a scale. These machines are handheld and portable.

The probes used can be mechanical, optical, laser or white light. The PC has software that creates 3D objects, stores the values of the object projected in the probe and gives back information to the CMM.

The Coordinate measuring machine is classified into the following types:

  • Gantry Type
  • Cantilever
  • Fixed Bridge
  • Moving Bridge
  • Horizontal Arm.
  • Column Type.

Where do we need 3D measurements?:

  • Manufacturing Industries to design and develop equipments,machinery and vehicles.
  • In the construction department.To make smaller 3D models of buildings and landscapes.
  • Designing and modelling objects.
  • Medical field to create human organs in digitalized 3D form and to study them in an effective manner for surgeries.
  • 3D animated movies and 3D graphics in games.
  • 3D printing.
  • Aerospace engineering to design propellers,planes and other representation of tools and alter them to form new ones.

Therefore 3D measurements form an important aspect in the evolving industries and technologies in the world.

The demand for its measurement and applications are increasing day by day. In the global level,3D measurement solves complex problems and paves the way to new ideas and designs.