Instrumentation is a unique course in engineering science and has various applications in every sector. Measurement systems are used for many detailed purposes in a wide variety of application areas.
A modem automobile uses as many as 40 or 50 sensors (measuring devices) in implementing various functions necessary to the operation of the car, an automobile designer must be aware of the instruments available for the various measurements and how they operate and interface with other parts of the system.
When we examine actual production machinery and processes, we often find that these manufacturing tools are controlled by a so-called feedback mechanism. a modem automobile, as mentioned earlier, relies on a multitude of sensors for its optimum operation.
Some of these play essentially a “monitoring” role, that is, they measure and display to the driver, information useful for the safe and efficient operation of the car. Speedometers tell us the vehicle’s speed, while tachometers display engine RPM.
To keep costs down, many automotive sensors use micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Feedback control applications are found in the car’s speed control system, the antilock braking system, the coolant temperature regulating system, the air-conditioning system, the engine pollution controls, and many more.
Also, the majority of the manufacturing tools and processes used to produce the car are under feedback control. Data loggers, a control system for equipment, as mentioned modules for automation and optoelectronics also serve application under instrumentation.
The use of instruments and measuring systems are everywhere. Plc’s Programmable Logic Controller is a digital computer frequently used in several industries and machines for automation of industrial electromechanical processes.
It is a real-time system used to produce output within limited time as a response to changes in input conditions. The general relay control systems are replaced by PLCs.