All the operations which are carried out in the industry, the systems are controlled to achieve efficiency, accuracy, and precision.
Instrumentation deals with the study of electrical and electronic components, and controllers in systems (Instruments) which measure and control.
Before going further, all the instruments you see in your daily life like thermometers, thermocouples in automobiles or heaters or boilers, thermisters, etc., are all used to measure and control physical quantities.
Instrumentation plays a crucial role in gathering information from systems and controls the data (DAS Data Acquisition System).
The instrument is a device which measures or manipulates physical quantities like temperature, density, level, pressure, etc.,
Instrumentation involves measuring quantities as said, measurement in layman terms, is defined as the comparison of an unknown quantity of some physical quality/dimension/phenomenon with a known, pre-selected value of the same physical quality/dimension/phenomena, called the Unit.
Also, measurement is experimental based (empirical) and is independent of the observer.
Generalized measurement system follows the below steps:
Measuring quantity-Primary sensing element-Variable conversion element-variable manipulation-Data transmission-data storage-data presentation system.
The structure of the measurement system can be described then in terms of domain conversions and changes, depending on the direct or indirect nature of measuring quantities.
Direct measurement yields quantitative information about an entity or action by direct comparison between reference elements. Ex: Weighing scale.
On the other hand, indirect measuring involves the quantity of interest is calculated by applying an equation that describes the law relating to other quantities measured with a device.
Ex: Distance is measured by integrating speed and power is voltage multiplied the current, etc.