Types of Material


Materials on the broadly can be classified on different types which can be done in the following categories

  1. Metals
  2. Ceramics
  3. Composites
  4. Polymers


Metals are those materials that can donate electrons. The electrons in the valence shell are denoted to become stable. As the electrons in the valence shell are highly unstable.


Now the electron always tries to achieve the stable state it emits radiation in the visible or the invisible wavelength. Metals can be further divided into ferrous and nonferrous metals, examples of the ferrous materials are iron, carbon, steel, etc.
Non ferrous metals are copper, aluminum, magnesium etc. .


Ceramics are the materials that are made from the powdered materials through the application heat or the conventional processes. The word ceramics means to make a pot.

cup made of Ceramics
cup made of Ceramics

They are typically crystalline in nature and have low electrical conductivity but have hardness and strength. Abrasive materials which are used for unconventional machining process are made from the ceramics.

Covalent bonds are stronger than the metallic bonds that’s why ceramics are brittle and metals are ductile. Ceramics are used to make cement and coating for polishing the materials.


Composite, as the name suggests, is the material made by two or more metals. The resultant of this is the composite material with different physical and chemical properties


A polymer can be defined as the materials which are formed due to chemically bonded parts together to form a solid bond. Polymers have the properties to resist corrosion which as an interesting property.

Polymers can also be further divided into Thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastics means that they melt on heating. Thermosetting plastics can not be melted or remolded.

Rubber is a natural polymer. The polymers molecules are mainly created by a process called polymerization which means adding the monomers in the long-chain compound.

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