In Material science, the elements are classified based on the composition and types of crystal found in nature.

Crystal is the arrangement of atoms and molecules in a crystalline material. The ordered structure exists within the materials and the smallest arrangement of these ordered structures is called Unit cells.

The unit cells represent how the atoms are arranged in a crystalline structure. The translation along the unit cells along the Principle axis is known as Bravis Lattice.

There are 14 types of Bravis lattice. The length of the unit cell and the angle between them is known as the lattice constant.

The crystal structure mainly defines the properties of the materials such as the Band structure, Optical properties, bond strength, etc.

The crystals structure is basically judged based on the parameters such as the length of the cell edges, the angles between them and the position of the particles inside the cell are described by the fractional coordinates.

By considering the atoms’ relatives to each other and the number of neighbor atoms Coordination numbers are to be predicted.

The packing efficiency can be worked out by dividing the volume of the total number of spheres by the volume of the cells.

This will indicate the density which it can support.

Defects and Impurities also form a major part in the increasing or decreasing the electrical conductivities of materials.

Properties of semiconductor material are decided by the defects called Doping.

Vectors and planes are decided by the three-valued number syntax which is known as Miller indices.

They are denoted by m,n,l… The crystallographic directions are the lines linking nodes.

Similarly, the crystallographic planes indicate the geometric planes linking nodes.